A curated collection of scientific studies and journal articles to raise awareness and elevate the discussion of the challenges, solutions and techniques that can be used to reduce carbon in the Inside Passage.



The Problem

Biofuels - Renewable Diesel and Biodiesel

Electric | Solar | HyBrid

Hydrogen - Fuel Cells & Oxidation

algae - a prospective Biofuel

Speculative biofuels & Misc


Oil on water may be colorful, but it's not pretty in any way

Oil on water may be colorful, but it's not pretty in any way

The Problem

Warming ocean waters off Alaska bring widespread ecological changes, with more expected

From Science journal, New research from Oregon State University presented at the Alaska Marine Science Symposium shows how higher water temperatures harm Arctic cod eggs and larvae and favor lower-latitude, lower-fat fish that have been moving north: Pacific cod and walleye pollock. Farther south, the Bering Sea has emerged as a hot spot for warming.

Decades of data on world's oceans reveal a troubling oxygen decline

Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology looked at a historic dataset of ocean information stretching back more than 50 years and searched for long term trends and patterns. They found that oxygen levels started dropping in the 1980s as ocean temperatures began to climb.


The nearly 3 degrees F increase in ocean temperatures over the last few decades has put the world's unbelievably productive kelp forests at high risk.  On the east coast of Tasmania, 95% of them are already gone, and it is nearly as bad on the coast of Norway.


Eastern Canadian Arctic mosses that are being exposed through snow melting after being boring for 45,000-110,000 years reveal that temperatures there are now warmer than at any time in the tens of thousands of years.  This is startlingly bad news.

Ocean oxygen decline greater than predicted

Georgia Tech researchers report in Geophysical Research Letters that they looked at data for the last 50 years and found that oxygen levels started dropping in the 1980s, as ocean temperatures began to climb – and are falling unexpectedly rapidly.

How global warming is driving mass coral bleaching

Perhaps the most significant, and likely most enduring, rapid changes that are taking place in many ecological systems as a result of global warming are those taking place in the Earth's oceans. Whilst many readers may have read or heard about Ocean Acidification, there are numerous other changes taking place in the oceans which should be equally as concerning. One such phenomena to appear in the last few decades is mass coral bleaching, a consequence of the continued warming and acidification of the oceans from carbon pollution.

Ocean Acidification

As the Smithsonian's Ocean Portal notes, ocean acidification is sometimes called “climate change’s equally evil twin,” and for good reason: it's a significant and harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that we don't see or feel because its effects are happening underwater.

Fossil fuel subsidies are a staggering $5 tRILLION per year

Fossil fuels are expensive. Much of their costs are hidden, however, as subsidies. If people knew how large their subsidies were, there would be a backlash against them.

UBC STUDY SHOWS global marine catches declining by around 1.2M tons/year

Working with University of Western Australia, UBC scientists in a new study show that the statistics showing steady or increasing catches worldwide are inaccurate.

The Hottest Year on Record for Oceans was 2017

The new study, published in Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, showed that the increase in ocean heat for 2017 took place in most regions of the world, with the Atlantic and Southern oceans showing more warming than Pacific and Indian oceans.

Pacific Northwest salmon are in big genetic trouble

A new study published in Science magazine shows that King/Chinook salmon have lots 2/3 of their genetic diversity are much less able to withstand habitat, temperature and other stressors associated with carbon pollution and associated ocean and atmospheric warming.

Recreational Fishing Boat at Shearwater Resort - Using B100 shipped up from Vancouver, BC by barge (Photo by P. Wilcox)

Recreational Fishing Boat at Shearwater Resort - Using B100 shipped up from Vancouver, BC by barge (Photo by P. Wilcox)

Biofuels - Renewable Diesel and Biodiesel


Pioneering marine biofuel work over the last 20 years at NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab led by Supt. Dennis Donahue.


Straightforward article from Advanced Biofuels USA describing the differences between RedD and BioD.

Renewable Hydrocarbon Biofuels

Good primer on Hydrocarbon biofuels from the US Dept. of Energy.


The Berkeley Marine Center has converted its petroleum diesel fuel pump and tankage to Renewable Diesel, one of the first in the US to do so.  There are still none in the Inside Passage marine waterway...who will be the first five fuel docks to do so and make toxic free voyaging possible in the NW?


One way to meet these requirements is by adding a biodiesel or Renewable diesel pump!


NESTE of Finland is shipping Renewable diesel made from pulp and paper mill waste on oil tankers to California to meet commercial and personal demand.  Their handbook is a terrific guide to the fuel most likely to be at the center of decarbonizing and detoxing the Inside Passage marine waterway.

local innovator enerkem supplies renewable diesel to two alberta cities using their municipal waste

Enerkem has figured out how to solve two major problems at once:  reducing landfill volumes and costs, and supplying locally made jobs and fuel from municipal waste (minus just the metals).  When will the first retired large pulp and paper mill became a Renewable diesel producer in Canada?


The San Francisco based Red & White Lines has joined other fleets around the world to switch to clean, very low carbon and cost competitive Renewable diesel from petro-diesel.  Who will be the first fleet in the NW to do the same?  The roughly 50% reduction in highly-carcinogenic soot (particulates) is making their filters last longer and helping to reduce operating costs.  The UK's venerable Red Funnel line of ropax ferries is currently trialing RenD and expecting to make the same switch.  Many trucking lines have already done the same locally and worldwide, including the municipal trucks of Vancouver, BC and NYC.

Cummins statement of approval of Renewable diesel for all of its medium-duty engines...testing others

Like most other diesel engine manufacturers, Cummins issued this statement re. their full approval of Renewable diesel in there medium-duty engines.  They are finishing testing other engines in their line and other approvals can reasonably be expected.

Volvo Trucks OKs Use of Renewable Diesel for Its Engines

Like virtually all other diesel manufacturers, Volvo has signed off the use of RenD100 in its heavy engines. As reported by Transport Topics.

new study for danish government details biofuels for commercial and recreational boating -  shows abundant cellulosic waste-based renewable diesel feedstock for all shipping and boating worldwide

This groundbreaking new study looks at the ideal non-toxic, waste-sourced (renewable) fuels for types of vessels.  It endorses Renewable diesel as an ideal future clean fuel for four-stroke marine diesels in light displacement vessels including recreational boats, tugs, small passenger vessels, etc.  Must reading.

california air resources board (CARB) two-year study says renewable diesel "Inherently non-toxic" 

CA Air Resources Board Tier 1 study of RenD, including production toxicity, transport, etc.

Practical Sailor's Exuberant Recommendation of H2Out Fuel Vent Line Dessicant Devices for Marine Biodiesel

Practical Sailor is the gold standard for the unbiased review of marine gear. They have twice given their highest award to H2Out for its highly effective dessicant devices for extending the life of biodiesel in fuel or storage tanks.

Boats and Biodiesel

A somewhat dated but still worthwhile primer for those new to marine biodiesel use.

Consolidated Biofuels Ltd.

Delta/Vancouver, BC based producer and supplier of green biofuels since 2009.

Lower Mainland Biodiesel

E. Vancouver, BC producer and supplier of green biodiesel.  No marine biodiesel station...yet.


All waste-based (Used Cooking Oil) biodiesel source in Victoria, BC on Vancouver Island. Their website boasts of 92.5% greenhouse gas deductions!  No marine station...yet.

Cowichan energy alternatives

Cowichan's nearly 20-year-old biodiesel co-op, north of Victoria and Sydney, BC, makes 100% of its B100 biodiesel from waste, Used Cooking Oil (UCO) to be specific. And they are looking into putting in a marine fueling pump!  The saved a new biodiesel blending pump that looks interesting and useful.


SQ makes 8M gallons of certified biodiesel annually from used food production oil, available at two dedicated stations and dozens of pumps throughout OR. Ama Natura has always used SQ biodiesel.

New purdue university study shows that biodiesel lowers carbon more than earlier estimates

The latest research indicates that biodiesel green house gas emissions overall are 10% lower than prior studies have shown.

State of [Vanouver] island economic summit concludes that vision and leadership are needed to advance clean technology on the island...Including gettng "off of diesel."

As reported by the Nanaimo News Bulletin, the need to get more of the Island "off of diesel" is one of the clear conclusions.  The Inside Passage Decarbonization Project is about nothing if not vision and leadership!  Let's all work together!

report on the top 7 eu advances in utilizing industrial waste

Europe is trying hard to reduce its waste by finding ways to convert it to fuel, petroleum-based chemicals and plastics, etc.  Read about that here.

Alberta's enerkem is getting $3.5M from the Canadian government to convert non-recyclable municipal solid waste into liquid biofuels

Waste is the new worldwide resource extraction industry, except that this industry is dramatically lowering carbon and in general focused on cleaning up the environment rather than downgrading it while creating jobs and wealth.

Biodiesel and Common Rail Engines

Empirical experience, mostly in VW turbodiesels, regarding the non-recommended use of high concentrations of biodiesel in common rail diesels.

Information for Boaters: Biodiesel for Marine Engines

One page marine biodiesel use guide from Dr. Randall von Wedel of CytoCulture.

Ship voyages on 100 percent renewable biofuel for 1 year

Account of Scripps Oceanographic Institute's one-year use of Renewable Diesel in one of its floating research platforms.

Innovative refinery to turn municipal waste into high-grade fuel

Increasingly common example from Alberta of making Renewable and Biodiesel from municipal waste; Portland, OR is doing the same now.

Great Leaf Forward: The Top 10 Trends driving the Canadian advanced bioeconomy

Financial, regulatory and participant look at the Canadian bioeconomy from Jim Lane of the Biofuels Digest.

Helsinki launches project to convert commercial and public transport fleet to 100% bio by 2020

Helsinki plans to have their entire commercial and public transport fleet using biodiesel by 2020! Here's how.

Canfor Pulp Receives Funding to Support Clean Technology Project

From Canfor's website. Report of over $13M Canadian government grant to develop Canfor's new Prince Rupert green RenD production plant.

Coast Guard IS TRYING Out Diesel Outboards

Maritime Executive report on the US Coast Guard's look at going to a single fuel, which could easily become Renewable diesel.   This may be the answer for how gas outboard owners can go near carbon free.

The Greenest Skies You’ve Ever Seen are in Seattle: Sea-Tac Airport leads on financing strategy for sustainable aviation fuels

New study looking at how to finance the transition to Renewable Aviation Fuel and how Seattle leads on this.

Breathing easier? The known impacts of biodiesel on air quality

US National Institute of Health funded medical study on biodiesel versus diesel air quality. Very detailed.

US consumed nearly 2.9 billion gallons of bio and renewable diesel in 2016

Useful data from the old EPA, before this kind of data was hidden by a new US administration determined to deny and hide the science of Climate Change.

What You Need to Know About Renewable Diesel

Government Fleet's well-reseached overview of RenD benefits and weakness, costs, etc.

Biofuels from Used Tires Thanks to Dept. of Energy

Using a novel, reusable carbon material derived from old rubber tires, an Oak Ridge National Laboratory-led research team has developed a simple method to convert used truck tires into biofuel.


Continuing to expand the waste-to-fuel paradigms, chemists at a Chinese and California university have shown how common hydrocarbon-based plastics can be economically converted to biofuel, as reported in Science magazine.


Much of the costs of fossil fuels are hidden.  The British Guardian newspaper reports on research from World Development journal that estimated that in 2016 the fossil fuel industry worldwide received $5.8 TRILLION in direct and indirect subsidies. After being in business over 100 years and making countless millionaires and many billionaires, one would think that it is time to instead support new fuels such as Renewable Diesel and Renewable Aviation Fuel that meet our needs so much better in this age of climate change.


Scientists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are utilizing a photosynthetic process to use carbon dioxide to produce fuels and alcohols, and doing so more efficiently than plants do.


Ensyn-provided primer on refinery feedstocks suitable for Renewable diesel, gasoline and aviation fuels.

Government Fleet magazine reports on the city of oakland's experience with renewable diesel in their fleet

''At first, renewable diesel seemed like a ‘too good to be true’ cost-neutral way to achieve our goals.  But renewable diesel gives you the ability to convert your entire diesel-­powered fleet to alternative fuel overnight,' said Richard Battersby, CAFM, CPFP, manager of equipment services for the city. 'When the product became available through a local supplier at a very competitive cost, it was an easy decision to make.''

Electric Skiff in Amsterdam Canal (Photo by P. Wilcox)

Electric Skiff in Amsterdam Canal (Photo by P. Wilcox)

Electric | Solar | Hydrid

mastervolt hybridmaster ultra add-on hybrid power

Dutch company Mastervolt is now making clever series and parallel piggyback electric propulsion systems to create an integrated hybrid system while keeping a vessel's existing diesel plant that can be run on Renewable or Biodiesel power for a complete low-carbon vessel.  The German company Siemens sell related parallel electric propulsion systems.


Norwegian-made electric ferries could reduce pollution in Hong Kong’s Victoria Harbour

South China Morning Post reports on the local engineers concerns given that Hong Kong's electricity is anything but green. In this case, electric propulsion would be a step backward.

wa state learns from norwegian experience to retrofit its largest ferries to hybrid power

As part of "Washington Blue," the state's new marine greening program, Washington state is retrofitting its three largest ferries to hybrid diesel-electric.  (Hopefully, this will soon become hybrid RENEWABLE diesel-electric!  Big fuel costs savings are an anticipated result.

Statoil Contract Refits Seven Vessels with Hybrid Power

Norwegian oil giant lightens the impact of its ocean drilling operations with electric offshore supply vessels.

A Charge Unanswered is a Charge Believed: The real economics of charging vs fueling

Why biofuels are necessary as part of a transition for existing infrastructure. This is a huge factor when looking at the Inside Passage's marine fleet economics.

New “Instantly Rechargeable” Battery Deals a Fatal Blow to Fossil Fuels

Don't just think PowerWalls or Firefly batteries, the so-called "Flow," instantly-rechargeable battery will be a game changer, if it gets to market.

First of Kind Hybrid Power Module Introduced

Wärtsilä's announcement of a fully-integrated hybrid ship propulsion system.

Peace Boat and Arctech Sign for Ecoship

Japan's largest cruise ship company has signed a letter of intent to build what could easily be the world's greenest cruse ship, the "Ecoship.

All American to build hybrid-electric passenger ferry

SF's Red and White Fleet has signed a contract for the construction of a 600' hybrid-electric ferry.


24-vehicle, 149 passenger retrofitted ferry will be the 2nd electric car ferry in the world.  Is that a trend?  When will see the first all electric ferries in the NW?

Electromobility: Electromobility - Setting a Course for Carbon-Free Shipping

Siemens' perspective on the world's first battery-powered car and passenger ferry in Norway. Very clever battery solution!


Integrated hybrid electric propulsion for smaller boats. Expensive but elegantly engineered.

Torqeedo electric (mostly outboard) boat drives

Torqeedo's German outboards and new inboards just keep getting better, and they were already the best in many ways. Their Deep Blue series comes in engines with integrated control battery systems up to 80hp. Their Travel series includes a 1 1/2 HP-equivalent motor with the Lithium-Ion battery integral to the outboard, as used on Ama Natura's dinghy.

e-propulsion's navy electric outboards - another electric outboard option

Navy electric outboards are available in 3 or 6 horsepower equivalents, and they have a lightweight kayak/canoe electric.

Electric Seas - A Resource for ThE Electric Boating Community

A Great Resource for the Electric Boating Community. You willl find it (almost) all here!


Australian store specializing in electric boat engines and solar.

The Gunboat G4 Is A Fully Foiling Tesla

Very fast Dutch catamaran w/Oceanvolt propulsion.

Solar Sailor enters Sydney Harbour (2000)

17 years and still going strong in Sydney's harbor, the revolutionary electric ferry, Solar Sailor.

Foss’s second hybrid tugboat employs new, more-powerful lithium polymer batteries

Professional Mariner reports that the lithium polymer batteries in Campbell Foss, made by Corvus Energy Ltd. of Richmond, British Columbia, are lighter and more powerful than the conventional lead-acid batteries in Foss’s first hybrid tug.


Stockholm ferry operator Ballerina has introduced a new, electrically propelled passenger ferry, built in composite material, that runs smoothly, comfortably and with essentially none of the noise that accompanies combustion-engined vessels.

Elegant and nearly silent 21' electric boats

The experience and expertise in engineering, naval architecture and renewable energy allowed us to create the perfect boat - our first green dream.

Innovative electric ferries for greener water transport

Description of an EU-funded project to come up with new standard electric ferry for Europe, designed for wind-generated eletricity.

Icelandic Hydrogen-powered Whale Watching Boat

Icelandic Hydrogen-powered Whale Watching Boat

Hydrogen - Fuel Cells & Oxidation

Hydrogen-Powered Ferry a Feasibility

Engineering 360 (and others) report that Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with SF's Red and White Fleet, has proven the feasibility of building and operating an emission-free high-speed ferry powered entirely by hydrogen fuel cells.


Could Svalbard's Electric Power Come From Hydrogen?

Gemini News article on Norwegian proposal to ship surplus hydrogen by ship to Longyearbyen rather than lay a power cable from the mainland to save millions and be nearly carbon-free.


Rotterdam Looks to Green Hydrogen

Using increasing amounts of surplus wind electricity, Rotterdam is looking at producing large quantities of hydrogen fuel.


Toyota, Shell Among Giants Betting $10.7 Billion on Hydrogen

NOAA believes that hydrogen is the optimum fuel of the furure for boats and ships, and the some of the petroleum industry's largest players apparently do too.


Engineers set record for storing solar energy in hydrogen fuel

Stanford Energy reports a breakthrough in storing electricity using hydrogen.


Germany welcomes world's first zero-emissions hydrogen trains

Dezeen reports that a fleet of the world's first zero-emissions passenger trains are set to go into service in Germany.


Fuel Cell Basics

Bluewater Sailing's primer on hydrogen fuel cell propulsion.


Why choose a fuel cell or an internal combustion engine when using hydrogen?

Comparison (aimed at autos) between hydrogen combusion in existing engines and fuel cells to electric motor power.


Hydrogen Challenger

Wikipedia article on retrofitted oil tanker producing its own hydrogen fuel from a Savonius rotor wind generator.


One hundred passengers and zero emissions: the first ever passenger vessel to sail propelled by fuel cells

Another 9-year-old report of the "first" commercial hydrogen passenger ship, the Alterwasser in Hamburg, Germany.


The Ross Barlow: a zero-emission hydrogen hybrid canal boat

Another, early hydrogen powered vessel, this time a canal boat in central England.


Lack of Cheap, Clean Hydrogen Slows Fuel-Cell Cars

Report on H2 supply problems, from Scientific American.


Hydrogenesis Passenger Ferry, United Kingdom

Yet another "first" hydrogen passenger vessel that uses industrial waste hydrogen in Bristol, England. Tried out by Capt. Wilcox and Mate Bayer in 2014.


Hydrogen-Powered Ferry a Feasibility

Engineering 360 (and others) report that Sandia National Laboratories, in collaboration with SF's Red and White Fleet, has proven the feasibility of building and operating an emission-free high-speed ferry powered entirely by hydrogen fuel cells.


     Hydrogenesis Passenger Ferry, United Kingdom

Hydrogenesis is the first hydrogen-powered boat to operate in the United Kingdom. The eco-friendly boat was ordered in 2010 by Bristol City Council as part of its Green Capital initiatives to make Bristol a low carbon city.

Georgia Strait Massive Algal Bloom 2016 (Photo by P. Wilcox)

Georgia Strait Massive Algal Bloom 2016 (Photo by P. Wilcox)

Algae - A Prospective Biofuel

What’s Up with the Algae Biofuels Industry?

31 Algae players, what do they make now, and how are they making out?


The state of R&D so far. 4 NAABB advances have brought the cost of algae biocrude oil down to $7.50 per gallon.

3 roadblocks remain between today’s cost and $3.00. In Biofuels Digests' two-part series, we get a look first at the breakthroughs that have radically changed the costs and outlook. In Part II, we look at where the opportunities lie to reach $2.00 per gallon algae biocrude oil.


Where are we with algae biofuels? PART II

In Part II, Biofuels Digest looks at where the opportunities lie to reach $2.00 per gallon algae biocrude oil.


Micro-algae biodiesel reduces up to 80 pct high-powered engines contamination

The first Chilean tests of microalgae biodiesel in high-powered diesel engines show that a reduction of gases emissions and particulate matter. of up to 80 per cent can be achieved


Microalgae Create Green Fuel, Reduce Food Insecurity

Taken from the bottom of the marine food chain, microalgae may soon become a top-tier contender to combat global warming, as well as energy and food insecurity, according to a study by researchers associated with the Cornell Algal Biofuel Consortium, published in the journal Oceanography (December 2016).


Celebrating Canada's 150th: A Short History of the Biofuel Industry in CA

An extensive and useful look into the players and progress by fuel type.


Chilean scientists produce biodiesel from microalgae

From Reuters: Chilean scientists are trying to improve algae growing technology to ramp up production at a low cost using limited energy.


Making Algae Obese: Synthetic Genomics, ExxonMobil breakthrough brings algae fuels clearer, closer

In California at the annual BIO convention, ExxonMobil and Synthetic Genomics announced a breakthrough in joint research into advanced biofuels involving the improvement of the Nannochloropsis gaditana algae strain. Currently at proof of concept scale, at the productivity rates seen under lab conditions, the strain could produce up to 1600 gallons per acre per year of lipids suitable for low-carbon fuels


Algae, algae, algae: The Digest’s 2017 Multi-Slide Guide to Global Algae Innovations

Terrific Biofuels digest overview of the current state of algal fuels and profitable by-products. Per the article, algal farming is like getting a full crop every week, with lipid production at 40-50 times other feedstocks.


Climate change is making algal blooms worse

From Nature: A study has unpicked how warming ocean temperatures have already driven an intensification of blooms around North America — the first time this link has been established at an ocean scale.


Hard Lessons From the Great Algae Biofuel Bubble

Economic algal-based biofuel has been an elusive target for more than a decade, and still is. This is an assessment by a venture capitalist thinks it may always be that, and he certainly could be right. Or not.


Biofuels: History, Demonstrations, End-products, Production Process, Costs

Algae basics from what appears to be an industry-funded website.


Saltwater-Based Algae Biodiesel Could be Cost Competitive with Petroleum Diesel?

Gas2's optimistic take on saltwater algae's potential, including examples.


Alabama Gets First-In-World Carbon-Negative Algae Biofuel

Carbon-negative algal biofuel from sewage waste treatment plant floating bioreactor bags. A possible smaller scale fuel solution for ports with treatment plants.


2016 National Algal Biofuels Technology Review

The definitive document on where algal biofuel scaling is at from the US Dept. of Energy (DOE).

Energy Observer - Innovative hybrid solar/wind self-generating hydrogen-powered vessel currently circumnavigating 

Energy Observer - Innovative hybrid solar/wind self-generating hydrogen-powered vessel currently circumnavigating 

Speculative Biofuels & Misc


Fuels Made from Air (CO2 & H2)


Inexpensive Catalyst for Solar Conversion of CO2


New Research Launched to See if Fuel Made from Recycled Plastic Could Power Ship Engines

Plaxx is an innovative marine diesel fuel made from waste plastic - of which there are essentially unlimited quantities - entering testing.


New eco-hybrid fuel could help to reduce shipping pollution

New Atlas report on speculative hybrid petroluem/waste shipping fuel using major waste stream from biodiesel production, glycerol.


A Self-Fueling Boat Just Set Sail on a Six-Year Worldwide Journey

The amazing Energy Observer plans to circumnavigate for 6 years using a combination of solar, wind, and hydrogen from sea water.


Scientists seek to harvest electricity from algae in green-energy effort

Scientists are making progress in harnessing electricity from algae in what could be a breakthrough in green-energy technology to combat climate change, although mass-market applications are years away, new research suggests.


Climate Change Will Worsen Nitrogen Runoff, Algae and Dead Zones, Study Says

A new study published in Science says that algae quantities will increase by 19% in the US.


Wave Energy Concept Ready for Ship Propulsion

Wave energy technology is ready to be combined with solar and wind power to create zero emission ships, says ZShips International CCC. ZShips is a Canadian company readying a proprietary wave power system that uses oscillating water columns integrated into a ship's hull.


HybridMaster 4.8, up to 30 hp - 48 V / 3.6-4.8 kW 

The HybridMaster is a compact electrical propulsion system that can be combined with every type/brand of engine with capacities up to 45 hp and with existing propeller.


Chemists Find New Method For Recycling Common Plastics As Fuel

Researchers from the Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry (SIOC) and University of California, Irvine (UCI) have discovered a new way to process the millions of tons of waste plastic we produce each year into usable fuel.


Norway and California Team Up on Decarbonization

California Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. has welcomed Norway to the Under2 Coalition - the global pact of cities, states and countries committed to limiting the increase in global average temperature to below two degrees Celsius. The news follows an agreement on green shipping between California and the Norwegian Maritime Authority.


Renewable Shore Power

This section is in development.  It is remarkable that no marinas or ports who already have some percentage of renewable shore power appear to be promoting this...

Options include:

  • Tidal power - big potential for many places and currently being implemented by...Blind Channel, BC 
  • Wind power - already a significant part of some ports and marina's, like Port Hardy, BC
  • Solar power - already a small part of some ports and marina's
  • Generators powered by waste-sourced Renewable Diesel or Biodiesel - best as a temporary or last resort option